Error estimates in novice and expert raters for the KT-1000 arthrometer

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1999 Jan;29(1):49-55. doi: 10.2519/jospt.1999.29.1.49.


Study design: Single group repeated measures with multiple raters.

Objectives: To determine the inter-rater reliability of KT-1000 measurements of novice and experienced raters and to provide error estimates for these raters.

Background: The KT-1000 arthrometer is often used clinically to quantify anterior tibial displacement. Few data have been documented, however, about the relative reliability of KT-1000 measurements obtained by novice compared with experienced users.

Methods and measures: Two novice and two experienced KT-1000 users performed measurements on 29 knees of 25 patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction or with a diagnosis of ACL deficiency. Measurements were performed at 131 N. Interrater and intertrial reliability coefficients (interclass correlation coefficient; ICC) and the standard error of measurement were calculated for expert and novice raters.

Results: The interrater ICC for novices was 0.65 and the interrate error was +/- 3.52 mm (90% confidence interval [CI]). The interrater ICC for experts was 0.79 and the interrater error was +/- 2.94 mm (90% CI).

Conclusions: These results suggest that experience in using the KT-1000 is related to the interrater error of measurements and that training is an important consideration when using the KT-1000 arthrometer.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / diagnosis*
  • Joint Instability / physiopathology
  • Knee Injuries / physiopathology
  • Knee Injuries / surgery
  • Knee Joint*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Period
  • Rotation
  • Tibia / physiopathology