We report the isolation of a cDNA clone named GPR54, which encodes a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). A PCR search of rat brain cDNA retrieved a clone partially encoding a GPCR. In a library screening this clone was used to isolate a cDNA with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a receptor of 396 amino acids long which shared significant identities in the transmembrane regions with rat galanin receptors GalR1 (45%), GalR3 (45%) and GalR2 (44%). Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that GPR54 is expressed in brain regions (pons, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cortex, frontal cortex, and striatum) as well as peripheral regions (liver and intestine). In COS cell expression of GPR54 no specific binding was observed for 125I-galanin. A recent BLAST search with the rat GPR54 ORF nucleotide sequence recovered the human orthologue of GPR54 in a 3.5 Mb contig localized to chromosome 19p13.3.