Nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors

Am J Med Sci. 1999 Mar;317(3):193-207. doi: 10.1097/00000441-199903000-00010.


A number of newer, "nontraditional" cardiovascular risk factors have been identified based on recent studies of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherothrombotic cardiovascular events. These include chronic inflammation and its markers, such as C-reactive protein; homocysteine; oxidative stress or endothelial dysfunction; lipoprotein Lp (a); psychosocial factors, such as environmental stress and responsiveness to stress; plasma insulin levels and markers of insulin resistance; and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which is in part a function of polymorphisms in genes for components of the system, such as angiotensinogen and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. The strength of the associations of the newer risk factors with cardiovascular therapy are currently being tested. This review will briefly discuss evidence that these risk factors are related to cardiovascular disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / microbiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / psychology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology
  • Homocysteine / blood
  • Humans
  • Infections / complications
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Lipoprotein(a) / blood
  • Renin-Angiotensin System
  • Risk
  • Risk Factors
  • Stress, Psychological / complications


  • Blood Coagulation Factors
  • Lipoprotein(a)
  • Homocysteine
  • C-Reactive Protein