Loop electrocautery excision procedure (LEEP) increasingly is being used for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Few published studies address the possible correlation between the histologic findings of the LEEP cone biopsy and the incidence of residual/recurrent dysplasia We identified 248 patients with CIN-3 treated by LEEP at the University of North Carolina from September 1991 through September 1996. Computerized files of these patients were then reviewed through August 1997 for pathology follow-up results. Two hundred patients had pathology follow-up and interpretable material. LEEP cone slides were reviewed to confirm CIN-3 and to assess involvement of margins, endocervical glands, and multiple quadrants. Cytologic and histologic follow-up data were categorized as negative or positive, with the latter including high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Fifty-five patients (27.5%) had residual/recurrent dysplasia, including 36 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (66%), 14 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (25%), and 5 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (9%). Greater recurrence rates were noted for cases with high-grade dysplasia involving margins (39% positive vs. 15% negative; P = .0001), endocervical glands (33% positive vs. 14% negative; P = .0044), and multiple quadrants (33% multiple vs. 14% single; P = .0036). In cases with negative margins, greater recurrence rates were still observed with high-grade dysplasia involving endocervical glands (20% positive vs. 9% negative; P = .0808) and multiple quadrants (20% multiple vs. 8% single; P = .0495). Positive margins, positive glands, and multiple quadrant disease are all predictors of residual/recurrent dysplasia after LEEP. Surgical pathology reports for LEEP cone biopsy specimens should include information on the presence of high-grade dysplasia involving margins, endocervical glands, and multiple quadrants. Continued close follow-up is especially warranted for patients whose LEEP cone biopsy specimens contain any of these histologic predictors of residual/recurrent dysplasia.