Hypophosphatasia. Review of 24 cases

Pediatr Radiol. 1976 Dec 15;5(2):103-17. doi: 10.1007/BF00975316.


Radiographic analysis of 24 cases of hypophosphatasia (H) from 9 Paediatric Centres was performed. 3 cases were of neonatal (lethal), 18 cases of infantile (severe) and 3 cases of late (benign) type. Some of the patients were in reality borderline cases between these groups. In the authors' material all the patients showed radiographic signs of the disease. These were divided into diagnostic, characteristic and suggestive features. All of the patients had in common generalised (usually irregular) osteoporosis, generalised (usually irregular) metaphyseal changes, craniostenosis (13 of 18 infantile cases) or widened cranial sutures and ofter bowing of the long bones. Besides the well know radiographic features of hypophosphatasia some less well known, rare or 'new' ones such as, 1. spurs of the long bones (Bowdler sign), 2. distal femoral central metaphyseal defects and epiphyseal defects, 3. S-like deformities of the tibiae, 4. abnormal shape of the distal phalanges of the fingers, 5. multiple rib fractures and slender bones, 6. wedging of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae, 7. partial premature fusion of the epiphyses, 8. nephrocalcinosis, 9. loss of lamina dura around the teeth, 10. variation in radiographic appearances of a pair of siblings with lethal form, and, 11. rapid changes in roentgen appearances. are discussed. In two of our patients (siblings) phosphoethanolamine was undetectable in the urine. The authors doubt if a normal skeletal survey may be present at any stage in any of the three major types of hypophosphatasia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / congenital
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypophosphatasia / congenital
  • Hypophosphatasia / diagnostic imaging*
  • Hypophosphatasia / genetics
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Radiography