We assessed 41 children and adolescents who had received liver transplants at least 4 years ago, for social, behavioral, and emotional adaptation; physical function; and family stress. We compared their level of adaptive functioning to published data from chronically ill and medically well children. On many measures, transplant recipients had equivalent levels of function to the comparison groups. However, 6- to 11-year-old patients showed mild social and scholastic deficits. Patients' parents report less negative impact of the illness on the family than do parents of other chronically ill children. A listing of medication side effects and the degree to which they are problematic was obtained.