Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a culturally specific, multicomponent behavioral smoking cessation program for Hispanic smokers with a low-intensity, enhanced self-help control condition.
Design: Participants who completed pretreatment assessment were randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Smoking status was evaluated at posttreatment, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up intervals.
Setting: The study was based in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods in Queens, New York.
Participants: Ninety-three Hispanic smokers participated: 48 men and 45 women.
Intervention: The multicomponent treatment involved a clinic-based group program that incorporated a culturally specific component consisting of videotaped presentations of culturally laden smoking-related vignettes. The self-help control program was enhanced by the use of an introductory group session and follow-up supportive telephone calls.
Measures: Smoking outcomes were based on cotinine-validated abstinence and self-reported smoking rates. Predictors of abstinence were examined, including sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nicotine dependence, acculturation, partner interactions, reasons for quitting, self-efficacy, and linguistic competence.
Results: Significant group differences in cotinine-validated abstinence rates in favor of the multicomponent group were obtained, but only at posttreatment. With missing data included and coded for nonabstinence, validated abstinence rates at posttreatment were 21% for the multicomponent group and 6% for the self-help group. At the 6-month follow-up, the rates were 13% for the multicomponent group and 9% for the self-help group. By the 12-month follow-up, the rates declined to 8% and 7% for the multicomponent and self-help groups, respectively. A dose-response relationship between attendance at group sessions and abstinence status was shown at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up intervals.
Conclusions: The results of the present study failed to show any long-term benefit from use of a clinic-based, culturally specific multicomponent smoking cessation intervention for Hispanic smokers relative to a minimal-contact, enhanced self-help control.