Development and testing of the UK SF-12 (short form health survey)

J Health Serv Res Policy. 1997 Jan;2(1):14-8. doi: 10.1177/135581969700200105.


Objectives: The 36 item short form health survey (SF-36) has proved to be of use in a variety of settings where a short generic health measure of patient-assessed outcome is required. This measure can provide an eight dimension profile of health status, and two summary scores assessing physical function and mental well-being. The developers of the SF-36 in America have developed algorithms to yield the two summary component scores in a questionnaire containing only one-third of the original 36 items, the SF-12. This paper documents the construction of the UK SF-12 summary measures from a large-scale dataset from the UK in which the SF-36, together with other questions on health and lifestyles, was sent to randomly selected members of the population. Using these data we attempt here to replicate the findings of the SF-36 developers in the UK setting, and then to assess the use of SF-12 summary scores in a variety of clinical conditions.

Methods: Factor analytical methods were used to derive the weights used to construct the physical and mental component scales from the SF-36. Regression methods were used to weight the 12 items recommended by the developers to construct the SF-12 physical and mental component scores. This analysis was undertaken on a large community sample (n = 9332), and then the results of the SF-36 and SF-12 were compared across diverse patient groups (Parkinson's disease, congestive heart failure, sleep apnoea, benign prostatic hypertrophy).

Results: Factor analysis of the SF-36 produced a two factor solution. The factor loadings were used to weight the physical component summary score (PCS-36) and mental component summary score (MCS-36). Results gained from the use of these measures were compared with results gained from the PCS-12 and MCS-12, and were found to be highly correlated (PCS: rho = 0.94, p < 0.001; MCS: rho = 0.96, p < 0.001), and produce remarkably similar results, both in the community sample and across a variety of patient groups.

Conclusions: The SF-12 is able to produce the two summary scales originally developed from the SF-36 with considerable accuracy and yet with far less respondent burden. Consequently, the SF-12 may be an instrument of choice where a short generic measure providing summary information on physical and mental health status is required.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Female
  • Forms and Records Control*
  • Health Status Indicators*
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Mental Health
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United Kingdom