To determine the reliability and the validity of the Diabetes Care Profile (DCP), an instrument that assesses the social and psychological factors related to diabetes and its treatment, two studies with separate populations and methodologies were conducted. In the first study, the DCP was administered to, and physiologic measures collected from, individuals with diabetes being cared for in a community setting (n = 440). In the second study, the DCP and several previously validated scales were administered to individuals with diabetes receiving care at a university medical center (n = 352). Cronbach's alphas of individual DCP scales ranged from .60 to .95 (Study 1) and from .66 to .94 (Study 2). Glycohemoglobin levels correlated with three DCP scales (Study 1). Several DCP scales discriminated among patients with different levels of disease severity. The results of the studies indicate that the DCP is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the psychosocial factors related to diabetes and its treatment.