Antiseptic susceptibility and distribution of antiseptic-resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999 Mar 15;172(2):247-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb13475.x.


We examined the antiseptic susceptibilities and distribution of antiseptic-resistance genes qacA and smr in 98 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained in 1992. Seventy-one strains were resistant to antiseptics. The qacA and smr genes were detected in 10 and 20 strains, respectively. The remaining 41 strains without qacA and smr were divided into two groups that exhibited low-level (n = 22) and high-level (n = 19) resistance to acriflavin. DNA cloning and sequencing suggested that norfloxacin-resistance gene norA was responsible for the high-level resistance to acriflavin. Our results indicated that four or more antiseptic-resistance genes exist in methicillin-resistant S. aureus and that antiseptic-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains without qacA and smr are widely spread in Japan.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acriflavine / pharmacology
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / pharmacology*
  • Antiporters*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Genes, Bacterial*
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Transport Proteins*
  • Methicillin Resistance / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
  • Norfloxacin / pharmacology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / genetics


  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local
  • Antiporters
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
  • NorA protein, Staphylococcus
  • qacA protein, Staphylococcus aureus
  • EmrE protein, E coli
  • Acriflavine
  • Norfloxacin

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB019536