Objective: To determine features of a new form of hereditary nephritis (HN) in dogs.
Animals: Parents and 16 first-generation offspring (8 males, 8 females).
Procedure: Adolescent dogs that developed renal failure were euthanatized and necropsied. Unaffected dogs were monitored until they were at least 2 years old. Studies included light and electron microscopy of kidneys obtained from affected and unaffected dogs and immunolabeling for collagen-IV chains in renal and epidermal basement membranes (BM). The nucleotide sequence of a portion of exon 35 of the COL4A5 gene was determined in genomic DNA isolated from affected and unaffected males.
Results: 7 of 8 male and 2 of 8 female offspring had proteinuria and juvenile-onset chronic renal failure, which progressed more rapidly in the males. Labeling for alpha3-alpha6(IV) chains was completely absent in renal BM of affected males and segmentally absent in affected females. Expression of alpha1-alpha2(IV) chains in glomerular BM (GBM) of affected dogs was increased. Labeling for alpha5-alpha6(IV) chains in epidermal BM was absent in affected males and segmental in affected females. Ultrastructural changes characteristic of HN were observed in GBM of affected dogs. The sequence of exon 35 of COL4A5 was normal in affected dogs.
Conclusions: This renal disease is an example of X-linked dominant HN, with typical abnormalities of GBM ultrastructure and alpha(IV) chain expression. CLINICAL RELEVANCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN MEDICINE: Dogs with this naturally acquired progressive renal disease can be used to investigate the pathogenesis and treatment of similar disorders in human beings and dogs.