Probe p13E-11 (locus D4F104S1) detects two highly homologous polymorphic loci on chromosomes 4q35 and 10q26. Previous reports in the literature have described a correlation of shortened 4q35-specific fragments and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD1). We have identified 30 FSHDI families (46 patients) carrying one short 4q35 and one short 10q26 fragment. The clinical data of these patients were compared with those of 47 families (131 patients) showing a single short 4q35 fragment, in order to evaluate a potentially modifying influence of shortened 10q26 fragments on the phenotype. According to our results, the polymorphic locus on 10q26 does not modify the FSHDI phenotype. The normal population (14%) and our FSHDI population (13%) did not significantly differ in the overall frequency of short polymorphic 10q26 fragments. The specificity of the p13E-11/EcoRI-BlnI test for FSHD1 was 100%.