Smoke constituent exposure and stage of change in black and white women cigarette smokers

Addict Behav. 1999 Jan-Feb;24(1):115-20. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4603(98)00031-8.


Differences in smoke constituent exposure by ethnicity and menthol preference and differences in decisional balance and habit strength by stage of change, ethnicity, and menthol preference were examined in this 2-factor study design. Ninety-five women, half of whom were Black and half of who smoked menthol cigarettes, participated in a cigarette smoking bout in the Clinical Research Center. Measures of smoking topography, plasma cotinine and nicotine, and expired carbon monoxide were obtained in addition to self-report of the pros and cons of smoking, time to first cigarette, and smoking history. Black women smoked significantly fewer cigarettes per day, but had higher cotinine levels compared to White women. Menthol smokers (n = 49) had significantly larger puff volumes, higher cotinine levels, and shorter time to first cigarette compared to nonmenthol smokers (n = 46). Precontemplators (n = 44) were significantly lower on beliefs about the negative aspects of smoking compared to contemplators and those in preparation stage. Black women, all stages combined, had higher negative beliefs about smoking than did White women. Implications for assessment of smoking patterns and intervention are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health / ethnology*
  • Behavior, Addictive* / classification
  • Behavior, Addictive* / metabolism
  • Behavior, Addictive* / psychology
  • Black or African American / psychology*
  • Decision Making
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Menthol
  • Motivation
  • Sampling Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Smoke / analysis*
  • Smoking / ethnology*
  • Smoking / metabolism
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology
  • Time Factors
  • White People / psychology*


  • Smoke
  • Menthol