Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA), known as the most common form of inner ear abnormality, has recently been of particular genetic interest because this anomaly is inherited in a recessive manner. The locus for non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss with EVA has been mapped to the same chromosomal region, 7q31, as the Pendred syndrome locus. In the present study, seven mutations in the PDS gene (PDS), the gene responsible for Pendred syndrome, have been found in families of non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss with EVA. One family is homozygous, three families are compound heterozygotes, and two families are heterozygous but with no other mutation detected. The present results provide evidence that mutations in PDS cause both syndromic and non-syndromic hearing loss.