Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human respiratory pathogen. Recently, seroepidemiological data and the demonstration of chlamydial DNA or antigen within parts of atherosclerotic lesions have suggested a causal association between chlamydial infections and atherosclerosis. As the results obtained by different groups show considerable variations, we provide further data based on a highly specific and sensitive nested PCR method. Positivity was confirmed by nonradioactive hybridization with a specific probe, and sensitivity was determined by titration experiments. C. pneumoniae DNA was detected in 8/29 (28%) of carotid artery samples and 3/14 (21%) of aortic aneurysms.