Plasma carotenoids, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: independent and interactive effects

Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Apr 1;149(7):621-9. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009862.


This study was conducted to assess the role of carotenoid and glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 84 incident cases of HCC and 375 matched controls selected from a cohort of 7,342 men (4,841 chronic hepatitis B carriers and 2,501 noncarriers) who were recruited between 1988 and 1992 in Taiwan were studied. Neither GST M1/T1 polymorphisms nor plasma levels of various carotenoids were independently associated with HCC, but they modulated smoking- and/or drinking-related HCC risk. Cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke significantly increased HCC risk in a dose-dependent manner among subjects with low plasma beta-carotene levels (p for trend = 0.047) but not among those with high levels. A statistically significant effect of habitual alcohol drinking on HCC risk was observed only for those with low plasma levels of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, or lycopene and for GST M1 null subjects. There was evidence suggesting an interaction between the GST M1/T1 genotype and certain carotenoids in HCC associated with smoking and drinking. The strongest effect of smoking and drinking was noted among GST M1 null subjects with low plasma levels of beta-carotene (smoking: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-11.83; drinking: OR = 8.28, 95% CI 2.40-28.61).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / blood*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics
  • Carotenoids / blood
  • Carotenoids / genetics*
  • DNA, Neoplasm / analysis
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Glutathione Transferase / blood
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Liver Neoplasms / blood*
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Taiwan / epidemiology


  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Carotenoids
  • Glutathione Transferase