Comparing deficits following excitotoxic and contusion injuries in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord of the adult rat

Exp Neurol. 1999 Mar;156(1):191-204. doi: 10.1006/exnr.1999.7016.


The majority of human spinal cord injuries involve gray matter loss from the cervical or lumbar enlargements. However, the deficits that arise from gray matter damage are largely masked by the severe deficits due to associated white matter damage. We have developed a model to examine gray matter-specific deficits and therapeutic strategies that uses intraspinal injections of the excitotoxin kainic acid into the T9 and L2 regions of the spinal cord. The resulting deficits have been compared to those from standard contusion injuries at the same levels. Injuries were assessed histologically and functional deficits were determined using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) 21-point open field locomotor scale and transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs). Kainic acid injections into T9 resulted in substantial gray matter damage; however, BBB scores and tcMMEP response latencies were not different from those of controls. In contrast, kainic acid injections into L2 resulted in paraplegia with BBB scores similar to those following contusion injuries at either T9 or L2, without affecting tcMMEP response latencies. These observations demonstrate that gray matter loss can result in significant functional deficits, including paraplegia, in the absence of a disruption of major descending pathways.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Contusions / pathology
  • Contusions / physiopathology*
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Evoked Potentials, Motor
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists*
  • Kainic Acid*
  • Locomotion
  • Male
  • Neural Pathways / physiopathology
  • Physical Stimulation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Spinal Cord / pathology
  • Spinal Cord Diseases / chemically induced
  • Spinal Cord Diseases / pathology
  • Spinal Cord Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / pathology
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology*


  • Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists
  • Kainic Acid