The polyphenolic content of fruit and vegetables and their antioxidant activities. What does a serving constitute?

Free Radic Res. 1999 Feb;30(2):153-62. doi: 10.1080/10715769900300161.

Abstract

Analysis of the major flavone, flavonol, anthocyanidin and hydroxycinnamic acid constituents (and their glycosides) of onion, tomato, egg plant and apple has been undertaken and the antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts determined. The major phenolic antioxidant components of egg plant are chlorogenic acid in the flesh and a delphinidin conjugate in the skin. In the case of apple, the major phenolic antioxidants detected are chlorogenic acid, procyanidins/catechin compounds, rutin and phloridzin. Quercetin glycosides are well-known to be the major phenolic components of onion. Assessment of the antioxidant activities of a serving of 100g fresh weight fruit, vegetable and comparison with previously reported findings for 150 ml beverage (500 ml portion in the case of beer), expressed in micromol Trolox equivalents show that the antioxidant activities of 1 glass (150 ml) red wine equivalent to 12 glasses white wine equivalent to 2 cups of tea equivalent to 4 apples equivalent to 5 portions of onion equivalent to 5.5 portions egg plant equivalent to 3.5 glasses of blackcurrant juice equivalent to 3.5 (500 ml) glasses of beer equivalent to 7 glasses of orange juice equivalent to 20 glasses of apple juice (long life).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins*
  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Beer
  • Benzopyrans / analysis
  • Catechin / analysis
  • Chlorogenic Acid / analysis
  • Chromans
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Citrus / metabolism
  • Flavonoids*
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Fruit / metabolism
  • Hydrolysis
  • Lycopersicon esculentum / chemistry
  • Lycopersicon esculentum / metabolism
  • Onions / chemistry
  • Onions / metabolism
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Phlorhizin / analysis
  • Polymers / analysis*
  • Quercetin / analysis
  • Rutin / analysis
  • Tea / metabolism
  • Vegetables / chemistry*
  • Vegetables / metabolism
  • Wine

Substances

  • Anthocyanins
  • Antioxidants
  • Benzopyrans
  • Chromans
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenols
  • Polymers
  • Tea
  • Chlorogenic Acid
  • Rutin
  • Catechin
  • Quercetin
  • Phlorhizin
  • delphinidin
  • 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid