In recent years, 16 cases involving the association between Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD), which is a hamartomatous overgrowth of cerebellar tissue, and Cowden's syndrome (CS), an autosomal-dominant condition characterized by multiple hamartomas and neoplasias, have been reported. LDD may be one of the manifestations of CS. Recently, mutations of the PTEN/MMAC 1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene, have been found in families with CS, including four patients in whom LDD was diagnosed. The authors present a case of LDD in a 53-year-old woman who also had the typical mucocutaneous lesions found in CS, as well as goiter and intestinal polyposis. In this case, CS had never been suspected until the diagnosis of LDD was made. The mutation detected in the PTEN/MMAC 1 gene as well as neuropathological results are described.