We hypothesized that exposure of healthy humans to ozone causes both ozonation and peroxidation of lipids in lung epithelial lining fluid. Twelve smokers and 15 nonsmokers (eight lung function "responders" and seven "nonresponders") were exposed once to air and twice to 0. 22 ppm ozone for 4 h with exercise in an environmental chamber, with each exposure separated by at least 3 wk. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed immediately after one ozone exposure and 18 h after the other ozone exposure. BAL fluid was analyzed for the aldehyde products of ozonation and lipid peroxidation, nonanal (C9) and hexanal (C6), as well as total protein, albumin, and immunoglobulin M as markers of changes in epithelial permeability. Ozone exposure resulted in a significant early increase in C9 (p = 0. 0001), with no statistically significant relationship between increases in C9 and lung function changes, airway inflammation, or changes in epithelial permeability. Increases in C6 levels were not statistically significant (p = 0.16). Both C9 and C6 levels returned to baseline by 18 h after exposure. These studies confirm that exposure to ozone with exercise, at concentrations relevant to urban outdoor air, results in ozonation of lipids in the airway epithelial lining fluid of humans.