Neuromodulators associated with arousal modulate learning and memory, but most of these substances do not freely enter the brain from the periphery. In rodents, these neuromodulators act in part by initiating neural messages that travel via the vagus nerve to the brain, and electrical stimulation of the vagus enhances memory. We now extend that finding to human verbal learning. We examined word-recognition memory in patients enrolled in a clinical study evaluating the capacity of vagus nerve stimulation to control epilepsy. Stimulation administered after learning significantly enhanced retention. These findings confirm in humans the hypothesis that vagus nerve activation modulates memory formation similarly to arousal.