To investigate the use of manual home blood pressure (BP) monitoring in chronic hemodialysis patients, daily home BPs in 20 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis were compared with the 44-hour interdialytic ambulatory BPs (ABPs). Each patient recorded home BPs for 2 consecutive weeks with a digital BP monitor three times daily. Prehemodialysis and posthemodialysis BPs were recorded by an oscillometric device in the hemodialysis unit during the same 2 weeks. ABPs were recorded either after the first or second hemodialysis session of the second week during a 44-hour interdialytic period using a Spacelab 90207 ABP monitor. ABP monitoring showed that BP decreased progressively after dialysis, decreased during the first night, and rapidly reached predialysis levels by the next morning. There was no decrease in BP during the second night. There was an excellent correlation between average systolic and diastolic ABP and respective home BPs. Prehemodialysis diastolic BPs were a good reflection of diastolic ABP, but there was more variability in predialysis systolic BP. Posthemodialysis BPs did not correlate with ABP. In patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis, home BPs more reliably reflected the overall BP than incenter BP readings. Predialysis, but not postdialysis, BP should be used as a screening tool to detect hypertension in the hemodialysis unit. Home BP monitoring should be used as a cost-effective means to diagnose occult hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients.