Therapeutic angiogenesis: protein and gene therapy delivery strategies

J Cardiovasc Risk. 1999 Feb;6(1):29-40. doi: 10.1177/204748739900600106.


Angioplasty and surgical bypass, the primary interventional therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis, are limited by the development over time of native vessel restenoses and graft occlusions. Furthermore, these therapies are not options for a significant number of individuals in whom the extent of vascular pathology is especially severe or widespread. Angiogenesis, the growth of new vasculature, is a critical biological response to ischemia that provides collateralization, or 'biological revascularization' of vascular obstructions. Therapeutic angiogenesis is a strategy whereby one of several known 'angiogens', mediators that induce angiogenesis, can be administered to augment the native angiogenic processes and enhance the formation of collateral vasculature. This report describes the techniques available for providing therapeutic angiogenesis, including acute and sustained-release techniques to deliver protein angiogens and a number of gene therapy strategies to deliver genes coding for the angiogens.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arteriosclerosis / therapy*
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Genetic Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic*


  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors