A preliminary study of microcapsule suspension for hemolysis evaluation of artificial organs

Artif Organs. 1999 Mar;23(3):274-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1594.1999.06316.x.


A microcapsule suspension, a substitute for animal blood in hemolysis tests, has been developed for evaluation of the absolute hemolytic properties of circulatory artificial organs. The microcapsule suspension was made by dispersing microcapsule slurry into an ethylene glycol sodium chloride solution. The microcapsule slurry was composed of a leuco dye solution and polyurethane membrane made by the reaction between aliphatic poly-isocyanate and polyamine by interfacial polycondensation. The microcapsule was a small particle containing dye inside. The microcapsule suspension was white; the diameter of the microcapsules was from 5 to 100 microns. The specific gravity of the suspension was 1.024, and the membrane was elastic. The fluid showed Newtonian characteristics, different from animal blood, and its viscosity was approximately 5.8 mPa.s. After the microcapsules were destroyed, the leuco dye was extracted with n-hexane from the suspension and was measured by spectroscopy after being colored with acid ethanol. Hemolysis can be regarded as a fatigue fracture of cell membranes rather than a static fracture. The destruction of microcapsules by a Potter type tissue grinder was observed at a low stroke number region and was compared to rat blood. Moreover, hemolysis tests of a commercially available centrifugal blood pump and the prototype of our centrifugal pump for mechanism checks were carried out with bovine blood. The hemolysis level of the prototype pump increased with time while the hemolysis level of the commercial blood pump did not change as much as that of the control when both pumps were tested with the microcapsule suspension. These results are similar to tests utilizing bovine blood. Therefore, hemolysis tests of circulatory artificial organs completed with microcapsule suspension are expected to provide results similar to tests with animal blood.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Artificial Organs / adverse effects*
  • Blood Substitutes*
  • Capsules
  • Coloring Agents
  • Hemolysis*
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Suspensions*
  • Viscosity


  • Blood Substitutes
  • Capsules
  • Coloring Agents
  • Suspensions