Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and their roles in limb development

Cell Tissue Res. 1999 Apr;296(1):33-43. doi: 10.1007/s004410051264.


Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors constitute a family of four membrane-spanning tyrosine kinases (FGFR1-4) which serve as high-affinity receptors for 17 growth factors (FGF1-17). To study functions of FGF/ FGFR signals in development, mice that carry mutations in each receptor have been created by gene targeting. Analysis of these mutant mice revealed essential functions of FGF receptors in multiple biological processes, including mesoderm induction and patterning, cell growth and migration, organ formation and bone growth. In this review we discuss recent work with FGF receptors to illustrate mechanisms, through which the FGF/FGFR signals specify vertebrate limb initiation, outgrowth and patterning.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Patterning
  • Cell Division
  • Extremities / embryology*
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / physiology
  • Humans
  • Limb Buds / physiology
  • Limb Deformities, Congenital*
  • Mesoderm / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Multigene Family
  • Osteogenesis
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / physiology*


  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors