Energy and nutrient status of amenorrheic athletes participating in a diet and exercise training intervention program

Int J Sport Nutr. 1999 Mar;9(1):70-88. doi: 10.1123/ijsn.9.1.70.


Chronic energy deficit is one of the strongest factors contributors to exercise-induced menstrual dysfunction. In such cases, macro- and micronutrient intakes may also be low. This study presents the results of a diet and exercise training intervention program. designed to reverse athletic amenorrhea, on improving energy balance and nutritional status in 4 amenorrheic athletes. The 20-week program provided a daily sport nutrition supplement and 1 day of rest/week. The program increased protein intakes for the 3 athletes with a protein deficit to within the recommended levels for active individuals. Micronutrient intakes increased, as did serum concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin. These results indicate that some amenorrheic athletes have poor nutritional status due to restricted EIs and poor food selections. A sport nutrition supplement may improve energy balance and nutritional status in active amenorrheic women.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amenorrhea / diet therapy*
  • Amenorrhea / etiology
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Energy Intake*
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Female
  • Ferritins / blood
  • Folic Acid / blood
  • Food Preferences
  • Humans
  • Iron / blood
  • Nutrition Disorders / diet therapy
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Rest / physiology
  • Sports / education*
  • Sports / physiology
  • Trace Elements / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin B 12 / blood
  • Zinc / blood


  • Dietary Proteins
  • Trace Elements
  • Ferritins
  • Folic Acid
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Vitamin B 12