Background: The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a differential effect of mode of dialysis, hemodialysis (HD), or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) on the dyslipidemia of renal failure.
Methods: The lipoprotein profile was determined in 61 non-diabetic patients on chronic HD (N = 30) and CAPD treatment (N = 31), and in a control group of 27 healthy subjects. The analysis included the measurement of individual apolipoprotein (apo) A- and apo B-containing lipoproteins (LPs) separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography. Apo A-containing lipoproteins include lipoprotein A-I with apo A-I and lipoprotein A-I:A-II with apo A-I and apo A-II as the main protein constituents, whereas apo B-containing lipoproteins comprise simple cholesterol-rich lipoprotein B (LP-B), with apo B as the only protein moiety and complex triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein B complex (LP-Bc) particles with apo B, apo A-II, apo C, and/or apo E as the protein constituents.
Results: CAPD patients had significantly higher concentrations of total cholesterol (6.8 vs. 5.1 mmol/liter), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (4.6 vs. 3.2 mmol/liter), TG (2.3 vs. 1.5 mmol/liter), apo B (155.3 vs. 105.7 mg/dl), LP-B (136.0 vs. 91.9 mg/dl), and LP-Bc (19.3 vs. 13.8 mg/dl) than HD patients. Both HD and CAPD patients had significantly higher TG, VLDL cholesterol, apo C-III, and apo E and significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apo A-II, and lipoprotein A-I:A-II levels than control subjects. The distribution of apo C-III in high-density lipoprotein and VLDL-LDL was altered in CAPD patients in comparison with control subjects. This suggests that the removal of TG-rich lipoproteins is less efficient in patients on CAPD. Normotriglyceridemic (NTG; TG < or = 1.7 mmol/liter, 150 mg/dl) CAPD patients had significantly higher levels of TC, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and LP-B than NTG-HD patients. There was little difference in the LP-Bc levels between NTG-CAPD, NTG-HD, and controls. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) CAPD patients had significantly higher TC, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and LP-B levels than HTG-HD patients. The LP-Bc levels were significantly increased in HTG-HD and HTG-CAPD patients compared with controls, but the slightly higher levels in the CAPD patients did not differ significantly from the HD group.
Conclusion: CAPD and HD patients have a lipoprotein profile characteristic of renal failure. Patients on long-term CAPD have higher levels of cholesterol-rich apo B-containing lipoproteins unrelated to TG levels. Many patients on CAPD also have a substantial elevation of the plasma concentrations of TG-rich LPs. The clinical significance of increased levels of potentially atherogenic LP-B during CAPD remains to be investigated.