Tracheobronchial stents have proved very valuable in the management of airway stenosis due to a variety of causes, both benign and malignant. These include benign strictures which are post-traumatic (e.g. after intubation), post anastomotic (e.g. after lung transplantation), or post inflammatory (e.g. after inflammatory conditions such as tuberculosis or Wegener's granulomatosis); as well as narrowing due to malignant involvement of large airways. In addition, airway stents have been used to treat tracheobronchomalacia and oesophageal-airway fistulae. The insertion of the stent may need to be combined with other procedures such as airway dilatation, laser photocoagulation, brachytherapy or a mixture of these treatment modalities. Stents have been fashioned out of silicone, wire mesh or a combination of these materials, but the perfect stent has yet to be devised. Common problems include displacement and obstruction with secretions or granulation tissue. Less commonly the stent may perforate the airway wall, sometimes into the accompanying blood vessel. Nonetheless, airway stents are valuable tools in the management of airway narrowing.