We have investigate the effect of sodium ketoglutarate intraperitoneal injection (20 mg/100 g body weight) made 0.5 hour before and 1, 2 and 3 hours after total X-ray treatment (259 mKl/kg) on the survival of rats. Simultaneously we have define changes in cholinesterase-acetylcholine system and content of adrenaline and noradrenaline in liver and pancreas tissues, small intestines mucous and in blood. All the data were taking at 1, 2, 5, 4, 24 and 72 hours after treatment and sodium ketoglutarate injection. We have found that sodium ketoglutarate injection made 0.5 hour before the treatment results in increasing of percentage death rate and injection made 1 and 2 hours after treatment results in increase in survival of rats. The effect of alpha-ketoglutarate injection made 1 hour after treatment in more pronounced. It is accompanied with increase of cholinergic status of organism on the catecholamine deficit background, decrease in the cholinesterase activity and increase of acetylcholine content in tissues of treated organism.