The purpose of our study was to describe the prevalence and the clinical spectrum of monosomy 22q11.2 in a population of patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect. We examined all 44 patients with this conotruncal cardiac malformation who presented to our institution from January 1994 until December 1997. The type of collateral lung perfusion was recorded including anomalies of the pulmonary arteries as well as facial and immunological abnormalities. Molecular-cytogenetic testing for a 22q11.2 microdeletion was performed using the probes D22S75 and cHKAD26. Statistical differences were evaluated with the Fisher's Exact Test. Monosomy 22q11.2 was present in ten children (23%) with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (group 1). The remaining 13 children (29%) with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (group 2) and all 21 children (48%) with ductus arteriosus (group 3) were negative for this microdeletion. All children in group 1 had facial anomalies, six had mild immunological abnormalities including decreased CD 4 + or CD 8 + cells. Anomalies of the pulmonary vascular bed were significantly more frequent in children of group 1 (9/10) than in children of group 2 (4/13) or group 3 (0/21). Due to these pulmonary vascular anomalies, corrective surgery had been accomplished in fewer children with monosomy 22q11.2 (none in group 1) as compared to 7/13 children in group 2 and 14/21 children in group 3.
Conclusion: In children with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, monosomy 22q11.2 is preferentially associated with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Due to the higher incidence of pulmonary arterial abnormalities, successful surgical repair will require a different therapeutic approach in most patients with this microdeletion.