Reference values of facial features in Scandinavian children measured with a range-camera technique

Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 1999 Mar;33(1):59-65. doi: 10.1080/02844319950159631.


Reference values of facial features in white Scandinavian children were ascertained using a newly developed range-camera technique with a three-dimensional measuring program specifically designed for anthropometric measurements. Seven facial features in 613 healthy subjects (322 girls, 291 boys), aged 1 month to 18 years, and nine subjects with the fetal alcohol syndrome,aged 7 to 18 years, were studied. Data were analysed by multivariate multiple regression and measurements of each facial feature plotted against age and presented as curves, with 95% and 99% univariate prediction limits. All children with fetal alcohol syndrome had shorter palpebral fissures, and in six of them the outer canthal distance was shorter than that in the reference group. The reference values presented may be useful in clinical practice--for example, in the evaluation of children with syndromes that result in dysmorphology of the face and in the planning of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anthropometry
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Face / anatomy & histology*
  • Facies
  • Female
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Reference Values
  • Video Recording