Using wood mice (Apodemus speciosus) captured in the wild in Niigata, we analysed the proportion of various endocrine cells in pancreatic islets for both immunohistochemical and microscopic characteristics. In both the dorsal and ventral portions of the pancreas, the centre of the pancreatic islets was occupied predominantly by insulin-positive (B) cells, surrounded by glucagon-positive (A), somatostatin-positive (D), and pancreatic-polypeptide-positive (PP) cells. Although the proportions of the various endocrine cells in pancreatic islets varied from one mouse to the next, in most animals B cells accounted for more than half of all endocrine cells. Dorsal and ventral portions of the pancreas differed in the proportions of various endocrine cells, specifically, in the A-to-PP cell ratio: the proportion of PP cells higher in the ventral portion. The same tendency is seen in humans, rats and mice. Microscopic examinations revealed morphologically distinct secretory granules in A, B and D cells. The morphology of these granules was similar that of secretory granules found in rats and mice.