The preliminary results of an international collaborative study examining premature menopause in fragile X carriers are presented. A total of 760 women from fragile X families was surveyed about their fragile X carrier status and their menstrual and reproductive histories. Among the subjects, 395 carried a premutation, 128 carried a full mutation, and 237 were noncarriers. Sixty-three (16%) of the premutation carriers had experienced menopause prior to the age of 40 compared with none of the full mutation carriers and one (0.4%) of the controls. Based on these preliminary data, there is a significant association between fragile X premutation carrier status and premature menopause.