Organization and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways

Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999 Apr;11(2):211-8. doi: 10.1016/s0955-0674(99)80028-3.


Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are components of a three kinase regulatory cascade. There are multiple members of each component family of kinases in the MAPK module. Specificity of regulation is achieved by organization of MAPK modules, in part, by use of scaffolding and anchoring proteins. Scaffold proteins bring together specific kinases for selective activation, sequestration and localization of signaling complexes. The recent elucidation of scaffolding mechanisms for MAPK pathways has begun to solve the puzzle of how specificity in signaling can be achieved for each MAPK pathway in different cell types and in response to different stimuli. As new MAPK members are defined, determining their organization in kinase modules will be critical in understanding their select role in cellular regulation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing*
  • Animals
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / physiology
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / physiology*
  • Carrier Proteins / physiology
  • Cell Compartmentation
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Drosophila melanogaster / physiology
  • Fungal Proteins / physiology
  • Growth Substances / physiology
  • Humans
  • Insect Proteins / physiology
  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Mammals / physiology
  • Mating Factor
  • Peptides / physiology
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational / physiology*
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / physiology
  • Receptors, Growth Factor / physiology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / physiology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Stress, Physiological / physiopathology


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Growth Substances
  • Insect Proteins
  • LAMTOR3 protein, human
  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Peptides
  • Receptors, Growth Factor
  • STE5 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Mating Factor
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases