Adaptive mechanisms in the elasmobranch hindbrain

J Exp Biol. 1999 May;202(# (Pt 10)):1357-64.

Abstract

The suppression of self-generated electrosensory noise (reafference) and other predictable signals in the elasmobranch medulla is accomplished in part by an adaptive filter mechanism, which now appears to represent a more universal form of the modifiable efference copy mechanism discovered by Bell. It also exists in the gymnotid electrosensory lateral lobe and mechanosensory lateral line nucleus in other teleosts. In the skate dorsal nucleus, motor corollary discharge, proprioceptive and descending electrosensory signals all contribute in an independent and additive fashion to a cancellation input to the projection neurons that suppresses their response to reafference. The form of the cancellation signal is quite stable and apparently well-preserved between bouts of a particular behavior, but it can also be modified within minutes to match changes in the form of the reafference associated with that behavior. Motor corollary discharge, proprioceptive and electrosensory inputs are each relayed to the dorsal nucleus from granule cells of the vestibulolateral cerebellum. Direct evidence from intracellular studies and direct electrical stimulation of the parallel fiber projection support an adaptive filter model that places a principal site of the filter's plasticity at the synapses between parallel fibers and projection neurons.