Effect of sampling site, repeated sampling, pH, and PCO2 on plasma lactate concentration in healthy dogs

Am J Vet Res. 1999 Apr;60(4):521-4.


Objective: To characterize the variation in plasma lactate concentration among samples from commonly used blood sampling sites in conscious, healthy dogs.

Animals: 60 healthy dogs.

Procedure: Cross-sectional study using a replicated Latin square design. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10) representing all possible orders for 3 sites (cephalic vein, jugular vein, and femoral artery) used to obtain blood. Samples were analyzed immediately, by use of direct amperometry for pH, PO2, Pco2, glucose, and lactate concentration.

Results: Significant differences in plasma lactate concentrations were detected among blood samples from the cephalic vein (highest), femoral artery, and jugular vein (lowest). Mean plasma lactate concentration in the first sample obtained, irrespective of sampling site, was lower than in subsequent samples. Covariation was identified among plasma lactate concentration, pH, and PCO2, but correlation coefficients were low.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: Plasma lactate concentrations differed among blood samples from various sites. A reference range for plasma lactate concentration was 0.3 to 2.5 mmol/L. Differences in plasma lactate concentrations among samples from various sites and with repeated sampling, in healthy dogs, are small. Use of the reference range may facilitate the clinical use of plasma lactate concentration in dogs.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Gas Analysis / veterinary*
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Body Weight
  • Carbon Dioxide / blood*
  • Dogs / blood*
  • Female
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Lactic Acid / blood*
  • Male
  • Restraint, Physical
  • Sex Factors
  • Specimen Handling / methods*
  • Specimen Handling / veterinary*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Lactic Acid