Interaction of human serum albumin with furosemide glucuronide: a role of albumin in isomerization, hydrolysis, reversible binding and irreversible binding of a 1-O-acyl glucuronide metabolite

Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1999 Apr;20(3):131-6. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-081x(199904)20:3<131::aid-bdd166>;2-x.


Furosemide 1-O-acyl glucuronide (Fgnd) was reversibly bound to a single class of binding sites on human serum albumin (HSA), and the binding of Fgnd decreased with increasing F concentrations, suggesting that Fgnd binds to the same warfarin binding sites on HSA as F binds. The rate of Fgnd degradation (hydrolysis and acyl migration) decreased in the presence of HSA. Although the formation of acyl migration isomers of Fgnd was slower in the presence of HSA than in its absence, hydrolysis of Fgnd to F was faster in the presence of HSA. Rapid minor irreversible binding of Fgnd to HSA within 30 min was followed by slow major irreversible binding. Slow irreversible binding of Fgnd to HSA was decreased by F, though not significantly. This suggests that major irreversible binding may proceed via reversible binding. It has been reported that acyl migration is a prerequisite for irreversible binding. Therefore, these results indicate that HSA decreases irreversible binding of Fgnd to protein by suppressing acyl migration. Furthermore, these results suggest that HSA may prevent irreversible binding of Fgnd to other proteins in the body by decreasing the concentration of reactive Fgnd in the unbound form. HSA eliminates reactive Fgnd by hydrolysis to F. Therefore, it is concluded that HSA works as a scavenger to decrease reactive compounds by reversible binding or eliminates reactive compounds by irreversible binding.

MeSH terms

  • Acylation
  • Binding Sites
  • Furosemide / analogs & derivatives*
  • Furosemide / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrolysis
  • Serum Albumin / metabolism*
  • Stereoisomerism


  • Serum Albumin
  • furosemide glucuronide
  • Furosemide