The p16 gene was identified as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) and this may negatively regulate the cell cycle by acting as a tumor suppressor. Using tissue microdissection, the molecular changes at p16 and Rb genes were analysed in the spectrum of disease from dysplasia to invasive cancer of the uterine cervix. Six of 27 (22%) cases informative for D9S171 and IFNA of 9p21-22 marker (p16INK4a) showed loss of one or both alleles in at least one of these loci. LOH of pRb was detected in 29% (5/17). Gene alterations at p16 and pRb loci were only detectable in some cases of HPV-16/18 DNA positive cervical cancer. Three cases demonstrated mutational changes of p16INK4a, and the alterations were determined to be G to T shift, suggesting transitional missense mutation. In summary, the inactivation of the p16/cdk-cyclin/Rb cascade may play an additional role during the malignant progression in HPV-16/18 positive cervical cancers.