A patient-like orthotopic implantation nude mouse model of highly metastatic human ovarian cancer

Clin Exp Metastasis. 1998 Nov;16(8):751-6. doi: 10.1023/a:1006537013317.


Clinically relevant animal models of human cancer are important for studies of cancer biology, invasion and metastasis, and for investigating new forms of prognostic diagnosis and therapy. An ovarian tumor line (RMG-1: human clear cell carcinoma of the ovary) previously grown subcutaneously was implanted orthotopically as intact tissue into the ovarian capsule of 22 nude mice. The tumors showed progressive growth at the orthotopic site in all animals. Tumor-associated serum galactosyltransferase (GAT) tended to be positive in all nude -mice. The tumors invaded or metastasized to the contralateral ovary, retroperitoneum, mesentery and peritoneum, and omentum, and metastasized to the subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes and distant organs including the liver, kidney, pancreas, and diaphragm. In striking contrast, subcutaneous transplantation of this tumor resulted in growth in only 2 of 5 animals with local lymph node and kidney involvement but no retroperitoneal or peritoneal involvement. These findings suggest that orthotopic implantation provides a suitable micro-environment in which ovarian cancer can express its intrinsic clinically-relevant properties. This approach is relevant to the clinical features of ovarian cancer and is thought to be a useful model for studies of therapy for this cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / enzymology
  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary*
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Cell Division
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Galactosyltransferases / blood
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Nude
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Transplantation / methods
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Transplantation, Heterologous / methods
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Galactosyltransferases