Hepatocyte growth factor increases expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human keratinocytes and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor flk-1 in human endothelial cells

Lab Invest. 1999 Apr;79(4):427-38.


The pleiotropic growth factor hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) has been implicated by clinical and experimental studies in repair mechanisms in different organs and tissues. However, no data on the impact of HGF/SF in wound healing in the skin are yet available. Proliferating and migrating keratinocytes play a major role in repair processes in the skin by closing the wound. Recent evidence gathered from studies that used gene-deficient mice has implicated the plasminogen activator (PA)/plasmin system in wound healing, which depends on controlled matrix degradation and deposition during cell migration and proliferation. Furthermore, keratinocytes are an important source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is a potent inducer of angiogenesis. In this study, we show that in human keratinocytes HGF/SF but not the related cytokine macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) significantly increases expression of VEGF and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) on the level of protein and mRNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HGF/SF increases the expression of the VEGF receptor flk-1 in human endothelial cells and that, in an angiogenesis co-culture assay of endothelial cells and keratinocytes, HGF/SF increases endothelial cell tube formation significantly. Therefore, we propose a role for HGF/SF in wound repair in the skin: HGF/SF--produced by activated fibroblasts--increases in keratinocytes the expression of PAI-1, which leads to increased matrix stability during the repair process and which could also limit activation of HGF/SF by proteases such as urokinase-type PA (u-PA) or tissue-type PA (t-PA). Furthermore HGF/SF also increases the expression of VEGF in these cells, thereby initiating angiogenesis in a paracrine manner. This effect would be enhanced by an increased responsiveness of endothelial cells toward VEGF, resulting from the HGF/SF-induced up-regulation of flk-1 on these cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line, Transformed
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / genetics*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / cytology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects
  • Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Growth Substances / pharmacology
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor / pharmacology*
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor / physiology
  • Humans
  • Keratinocytes / drug effects
  • Keratinocytes / metabolism*
  • Lymphokines / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology*
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins*
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics*
  • Receptors, Growth Factor / genetics*
  • Receptors, Mitogen / genetics
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator / genetics
  • Umbilical Veins
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / genetics
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors


  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Growth Substances
  • Lymphokines
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Receptors, Growth Factor
  • Receptors, Mitogen
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • macrophage stimulating protein
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator