An 225Ac/213Bi generator system for therapeutic clinical applications: construction and operation

Appl Radiat Isot. 1999 May;50(5):895-904. doi: 10.1016/s0969-8043(98)00151-1.


A method for construction and operation of an 225Ac/213Bi generator capable of producing 25-100 mCi of 213Bi suitable for clinical antibody labeling is described. The generator has been designed to have an effective lifetime of several weeks, producing up to six therapeutic doses of radionuclide per day. To date, 57 clinical doses have been prepared and injected into patients using the described 213Bi generator. Factors such as radiation damage, radioprotection, iodide eluate chemistry, radiolabeling chemistry and radionuclide purity are addressed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Actinium*
  • Alpha Particles
  • Bismuth*
  • Isotope Labeling / instrumentation
  • Isotope Labeling / methods
  • Nuclear Medicine / instrumentation
  • Nuclear Medicine / methods
  • Radioisotopes*
  • Radionuclide Generators*


  • Radioisotopes
  • Actinium
  • Bismuth