We report on a 4 year-old girl with a 1p36.3-pter deletion. Clinical findings included minor anomalies of face and distal limbs, patent ductus arteriosus, the Ebstein heart anomaly, and brain atrophy with seizures. Conventional GTG-banded chromosome analysis revealed a normal (46,XX) result. Subsequent analysis by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using distal probes demonstrated a deletion of 1p36.6-pter. Molecular investigations with microsatellite markers showed hemizygosity at three loci at 1p36.3 with loss of the paternal allele. The deletion of 1p36.3 is difficult to identify by banding alone; indeed, our patient represents the third reported case with a del(1)(p36.3) that was detected only after more detailed analysis. In all three cases the deletion was detected through screening of patients with multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndromes suggestive of autosomal chromosome aberrations for subtelomeric submicroscopic deletions by means of FISH or microsatellite marker analysis. On the basis of these observations we highly recommend that FISH with a subtelomeric 1p probe be routinely performed in patients with similar facial phenotype, severe mental retardation and seizures, and a heart malformation, particularly the Ebstein anomaly.