(a) Chronic electrostimulation of fast-twitch skeletal muscles makes them resemble slow-twitch muscles. The involvement of second-messenger cascades in this muscle reprogramming is not well understood. The goal of this study was to examine protein kinase activities and calmodulin levels as a function of the duration of electrostimulation. (b) Fast-twitch rabbit muscle was subjected to continuous low-frequency electrostimulation for 2 weeks. The extensor digitorum longus was taken and examined for calmodulin concentration and cAMP-dependent (PKA). Ca(2+)-phospholipid-dependent (PKC) and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent (CaM kinase or PKB) protein kinase activities. (c) Electrostimulation for 14 days led to a significant increase in total calmodulin level and PKB activity, both rising in the cytosolic fraction. Protein kinase C translocated to the membrane fraction, although total activity did not change. (d) These changes could be related with electrostimulation-induced changes in excitation-contraction coupling.