To examine the lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) level in the Taiwanese population and its association with cardiovascular risk factors, 1703 men and 1899 women aged 35 years and above were enrolled in a community-based study cohort established between 1990 and 1991. The distributions of Lp(a) levels were skewed to the right, and females were more likely than males to have Lp(a) levels greater than 30 mg/dl (14.3% versus 11.6%, P < 0.05). The Lp(a) level increased with age. Socioeconomic status did not seem to have consistent influence on the level of Lp(a). Smoking and alcohol use also had no effect on Lp(a) levels. Multivariate analysis indicated that older age and high level of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol corresponded to an elevated Lp(a) level, while hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol level, obesity and high insulin resistance corresponded to a lower Lp(a) level. In univariate analysis, hyperinsulinemia was negatively associated with Lp(a) level (-0.107, P < 0.01) only in males. In females, use of oral contraceptive lowered Lp(a) levels, but menopause did not change Lp(a) levels. We also found that different correlation patterns existed for selected coagulation profiles between sexes. There was a significant correlation between Lp(a) and fibrinogen levels in males (0.154, P < 0.001) but not in females (0.007, P > 0.05). These data provided clues for investigating atherosclerotic risk factors and coagulation parameters for the Taiwanese population.