Oral intake in labor. Trends in midwifery practice. The CNM Data Group, 1996

J Nurse Midwifery. Mar-Apr 1999;44(2):135-8. doi: 10.1016/s0091-2182(99)00002-6.


Joint data collection by nine nurse-midwifery practices in the United States in 1996 permitted a description of oral intake in labor. Observational data are reported for healthy gravidas at term (n = 3,338). The majority of women ingested only clear fluids in labor. Over one fourth consumed nonclear liquids or solid foods, and fasting was rare. Variations are reported for subgroups of women according to several demographic and clinical characteristics. Ingestion of nonclear liquids or solids was least common in hospital settings as compared with home births.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Labor, Obstetric*
  • Midwifery / methods
  • Midwifery / statistics & numerical data
  • Midwifery / trends*
  • Nurse Midwives / statistics & numerical data*
  • Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
  • Pregnancy
  • United States