Background: A phase II trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of infusions of dendritic cells (DC) and two HLA-A2-specific prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) peptides (PSM-P1 and -P2). This report describes the evaluation of 37 subjects admitted with presumed local recurrence of prostate cancer after primary treatment failure.
Methods: All subjects received six infusions of DC pulsed with PSM-P1 and -P2 at 6-week intervals. Clinical monitoring was conducted pre-, during, and post-phase II study. Data included: complete blood count, bone and total alkaline phosphatase, prostate markers, physical examination, performance status, bone scan, ProstaScint scan, and chest X-ray, as well as other assays to monitor cellular and humoral immune responses.
Results: One complete and 10 partial responders were identified from this group based on National Prostate Cancer Project criteria, or on a 50% reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or on a significant resolution in lesions (biopsy-proven when possible) on ProstaScint scan.
Conclusions: About 30% of study participants in this group showed a positive response at the conclusion of the trial. This study suggests that DC-based cancer vaccines may provide an alternative therapy for prostate cancer patients whose primary treatment failed.