Mortality and rebleeding following Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunt for variceal haemorrhage

J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Feb;13(2):163-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.1998.tb00632.x.


The present study investigates clinical factors associated with decreased survival following Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunt (TIPSS). Sixty-seven patients underwent TIPSS for bleeding related to portal hypertension, 42 (63%) on an urgent basis. TIPSS was successfully placed in 65 (97%) patients with no fatal procedural complications. Thirty day mortality was 21%, there being several predictive factors: transfer from another institution, urgency of procedure, sepsis, encephalopathy, higher mean serum bilirubin and low serum albumin. However, using regression analysis, 30 day mortality was predicted independently only by severe liver disease (Child-Pugh C, P= 0.003) and older age (P= 0.003). When stratified by Child-Pugh class, cumulative survival rates at 1 year for class A, B and C were 100, 90 and 34%, respectively. Only three of 25 patient deaths were due to variceal rebleeding. Thirty (46%) patients had a total of 41 rebleeding episodes, with mean time to first rebleed of 4.8 months (range, 3 days-38 months). Cumulative rebleeding rate at 1 year was 25%. Log-rank analysis did not reveal a significant difference in overall survival between rebleeders and non-rebleeders (P= 0.125). When investigated, shunt abnormalities (stenosis, occlusion) were identified in all cases of rebleeding. Our findings confirm TIPSS can be safe and effective in the control of refractory variceal haemorrhage. However, prognosis remains poor for patients with advanced liver disease, particularly if older and in the emergency setting. Vigilant surveillance and high rate of intervention is necessary to maintain shunt patency. Consideration could be given to elective shunt surgery instead of TIPSS for patients with recurrent bleeding and good prognosis liver disease.

MeSH terms

  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / complications*
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Portal / complications
  • Liver Diseases / complications
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic / adverse effects*
  • Prognosis
  • Recurrence
  • Survival Rate