The D-type cyclins, involved in the regulation of G1 progression of the cell cycle, are expressed in a lineage-specific manner. Normal hematopoietic cells express cyclin D2 and/or D3. In order to determine whether their expression pattern changes in lymphoid tumors, we examined cyclin D2 and D3 expression in non-neoplastic and neoplastic lymphoid lesions, using a sensitive immunohistochemical amplification method. Centroblasts in lymphoid follicles of reactive lymph nodes expressed exclusively cyclin D3 and no D2. Interfollicular areas contained scattered cyclin D3 and D2 positive cells. By double staining, cyclin D3 was detected in CD79a positive B cells, CD3 positive T cells and CD68 positive macrophages. Cyclin D2 was present only in CD3 positive T cells. Neoplastic lymphoid lesions included 33 B cell lymphomas, 9 T cell lymphomas and 12 Hodgkin's lymphomas. The B cell lymphomas comprised 9 follicular lymphomas (FL), 1 Burkitt lymphoma (BL), 22 diffuse large cell lymphomas (DL) and 1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). All 9 FLs and the single BL expressed exclusively cyclin D3, similarly to germinal center B cells, that represent their cells of origin. Six DLs expressed both cyclin D2 and D3, while 6 expressed only D3. Among the 9 pleomorphic T cell lymphomas, medium and large cell type, 5 expressed cyclin D2. Cyclin D3 was also detected in scattered cells in 4 of 9 cases and was highly expressed in 2 of 9 T cell lymphomas. The majority of Hodgkin's lymphomas expressed both cyclin D2 and D3 in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. The high frequency of positive cells indicates that both cyclins were expressed in the same cells.