Ninety-three women with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection were enrolled in a cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationship between plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and coincident cervical infection and disease caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs). HIV-1 RNA plasma levels of >10,000 copies/mL were highly associated with the presence in cervical specimens of HPV DNA of oncogenic (high risk) virus genotypes (P=.006; relative risk, 2.57). In addition, similar HIV-1 RNA plasma levels were associated with abnormal Pap smears (P=.01; relative risk, 2.11). In this study, 81% of women with high-risk HPV cervical infection had abnormal Pap smears. Measurement of HIV-1 RNA plasma levels may help to identify a subgroup of HIV-1-infected women at increased risk for cervical HPV infection and disease.