A case-control study on risk factors for pancreatic diseases in Kerala, India

Hepatogastroenterology. Jan-Feb 1999;46(25):25-30.


Background/aims: We simultaneously conducted case-control studies, in Kerala of South India, on chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics (CCPT), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) with CCPT, and PDA alone to assess similarity of and difference between their risk factors.

Methodology: Cases with one of these diseases were identified at the Trivandrum Medical College (TMC) Hospital, in Kerala, from 1994 to 1996. Controls were selected from healthy hospital visitors of the TMC Hospital by individual age (within +/- 3 years) and sex-matched with the index case. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals for potential risk factors were calculated.

Results: Frequent consumption of cassava was positively associated with the risk of PDA with CCPT. Heavy cigarette smoking and drinking large amounts of coffee and/or tea everyday were positively related to the risk of PDA alone. Frequent consumption of vegetables and/or fruits was correlated to the decreased risk of PDA alone.

Conclusions: Risk factors as well as preventive factors seem to be different between PDA with CCPT and PDA alone. Further study is necessary, especially to clarify the prognostic factors which would induce pancreatic malignancy in patients with CCPT.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Calcinosis / complications
  • Calcinosis / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma / complications
  • Carcinoma / epidemiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Chronic Disease
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Manihot
  • Middle Aged
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Pancreatitis / complications
  • Pancreatitis / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking